near Golden Ring, Московская область (Россия)
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St Basil's Cathedral
Bolshoi Kamennyy bridge
Cathedral Christ the savior
Petar I monument
Kotelnicheskaya Embankment Building
Library of foreign literature
Komsomolskaya metro station
Moscow Cathedral Mosque
Central academic theatre of the Russian army
Patriarshy Bridge (Russian: Патриарший Мост/Patriarchal Bridge) is a steel pedestrian box girder bridge that spans Moskva River and Vodootvodny Canal, connecting Cathedral of Christ the Saviour with Bersenevka in downtown Moscow, Russia (0.6 kilometers west from the Kremlin). It was built in 2004, designed by Mikhail Posokhin (junior). The second part of the bridge spanning Vodootvodny Canal was opened in September, 2007.
Krymsky Bridge or Crimean Bridge (Russian: Крымский мост) is a steel suspension bridge in Moscow. The bridge spans the Moskva River 1,800 metres south-west from the Kremlin and carries the Garden Ring across the river. The bridge links the Zubovsky Boulevard to the north-west with Krymsky Val street to the south-east. The nearby Moscow Metro stations are Park Kultury and Oktyabrskaya. The existing bridge was completed on May 1, 1938, as part of Joseph Stalin's ambitious reconstruction of downtown Moscow. Designed by engineer V. P. Konstantinov and architect A. V. Vlasov, it is the fourth bridge on this site and the only suspension bridge in all of Moscow.The first pontoon Krymsky Bridge was built in wood in 1786. Subsequently, it was rebuilt as a fixed wooden causeway with a 15-metre central span for barges. Both wooden bridges were frequently damaged by ice and floods, and had to be repaired on numerous occasions. The first steel bridge, built in 1873 by Amand Struve to a design by V. K. Speyer, featured two 64-meter truss boxes, supported by the central pillar. Traffic moved inside the truss, which was congested and unsafe. Tram companies issued a rule that only one tram can be on a bridge at a time, to prevent traffic deadlocks. During Stalin's reconstruction of Moscow, every bridge in the downtown was either rebuilt or scheduled for demolition. The Krymsky Bridge was slated to be replaced in 1935. The old bridge had to operate until the substitute was completed, because the Soviet capital could not afford interruption of service along the Garden Ring. Between 21 May and 26 May 1936, the old bridge was moved fifty meters from its site on temporary pillars. For the first time in Soviet history a 4000-ton, 128-meter structure was relocated successfully. The old bridge was in operation until the new bridge was completed on May 1, 1938
Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge
Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge (Russian: Большой Каменный мост, Greater Stone Bridge) is a steel arch bridge spanning Moskva River at the western end of the Moscow Kremlin. Its predecessor was the first permanent stone bridge in Moscow, Russia. The existing bridge was completed in 1938 by engineer Nikolai Kalmykov.A "live" bridge of boats linked the Kremlin with Zamoskvorechye on a nearby site as early as the 15th century. In 1643, Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich engaged Anie and Jogann Cristler, architects from Strassburg to design a stone bridge. Anie Cristler and Tsar Mikhail died in 1645, construction halted. Sources about the completion of the first Stone Bridge are contradictory. The most widely accepted version attributes it to Patriarch Filaret, who picked up the job in 1682; year of completion is either 1687 or 1692. Another version connects the completion in 1687 with Vasily Golitsyn, notable for his sponsorship of architecture. Archive studies by Ivan Kondratiev indicate that original draft had 5 main spans of 40 arshin each. Later, numerous repairs (1707, 1731, 1771, 1788–1792, 1809–1812) changed it to seven spans over eight stone pillars. It is estimated that the river maximum width was 105 meters (50 sazhen), and overall length of the bridge was 70 sazhen, 11 sazhen wide. Its south end terminated with a barbican tower, commonly called Six Gates (two for through traffic, four looking sideways). This ornate tower is believed to be the first stone Triumph arch in Muscovy. The bridge deck originally included wooden storehouses, mills, taverns and tax collector's booths. All of these additions were destroyed in 1785 by the governor's decree. Still, it remained a busy public square and a place for religious ceremonies. Police reported frequent illegal street races in troikas, which assembled thousands of bystanders; more races followed when a new and wider bridge was completed.Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge (1859, demolished) Second Stone Bridge, postcard Second Stone Bridge, view from Christ the Savior 2008 The Second Stone Bridge was built in 1859 by colonel Tannenberg on the same site, in line with today's Lenivka Street. The new bridge had three steel arched spans (36+40+36 meters) on stone pillars, similar to still existing Novospassky Bridge and Borodinsky Bridge. The main drawback, compared to these later bridges, was that the Stone Bridge left no free passage for the traffic on embankments. Riverside traffic had to cross bridge traffic in the same level. This design error became a problem even before automobiles and this is why the Second Stone bridge was demolished in 1930s, while Novospassky Bridge still stands. Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge (1938) The first contest for the Third Stone Bridge was held in 1921; none of the entries were selected. The second contest was won jointly by engineer Nikolai Kalmykov and Schuko-Gelfreikh-Minkus team of architects. Kalmykov's design was completed in 1935-1938, on a site which is two blocks closer to Kremlin than the previous bridges. The single arched span is 105 meters wide and 8.4 meter high. A total of 6 parallel, boxed steel arches support the 40 meter wide roadway. The arch rests on submerged caisson foundations. Embankment traffic uses two 42.5 meter long side arches. Total length, including approach ramps, is 487 meters. There are 8 lanes for regular traffic and a divider lane.
Nice restaurant with phenomenal tea.
Moscow Kursky railway station
Kursky railway terminal (Russian: Ку́рский вокза́л, Kursky vokzal), also known as Moscow Kurskaya railway station (Russian: Москва́-Ку́рская, Moskva-Kurskaya), is one of the ten railway terminals in Moscow. It was built in 1896, and renovated (without major design changes) in 1938, then a large glass facade and modern roof was added in a 1972 expansion. In 2008, there were plans to completely rebuild or refurbish the station. Kursky station, unlike most Moscow terminals, operates two almost opposite railroad directions from Moscow: one toward Kursk, Russia, after which the station is named, that stretches on into Ukraine, and another toward Nizhniy Novgorod, which is less used by long-distance trains, and is mostly for the high-speed service to Nizhniy. Kursky is connected to the Lengradskiy Line from the other side, enabling long-distance trains from St. Petersburg going on to other cities to pass through Russia's capital. Because of its three directions, its adjacency to the city center, and its connection to three major metro lines, Kursky is one of Moscow's busiest railway stations.
Big Clay #4
Urs Fisher sculpture
Peter the Great Statue
The Peter the Great Statue is a 98-metre-high (322 ft) monument to Peter the Great, located at the western confluence of the Moskva River and the Vodootvodny Canal in central Moscow, Russia. It was designed by the Georgian designer Zurab Tsereteli to commemorate 300 years of the Russian Navy, which Peter the Great established. It was erected in 1997 and is the eighth-tallest statue in the world. It weighs around 1,000 tons and contains 600 tons of stainless steel, bronze and copper.Since its inception, the statue has courted controversy. In November 2008, it was voted the tenth ugliest building in the world by Virtual Tourist. In 2010, it was included in a list of the world's ugliest statues by Foreign Policy magazine. Lonely Planet commented: "Questions of taste aside, Muscovites were sceptical about the whole idea: why pay tribute to Peter the Great, who loathed Moscow and moved the capital to St Petersburg?" The designer Zurab Tsereteli is known as a friend and favorite of Moscow's former Mayor Yury Luzhkov, and the artist received a number of municipal art commissions under his patronage, such as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, the Manege Square ensemble and the War Memorial Complex on Poklonnaya Gora. In October 2010, following Luzhkov's departure from office, Moscow authorities, reportedly keen to get rid of the Peter the Great Statue, offered to relocate it to Saint Petersburg, but this offer was refused by the city. Authorities in Arkhangelsk and Petrozavodsk have offered to accept the monument. The statue is allegedly based on a design originally intended to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1992. When an American customer for the project could not be found, it was re-purposed with a Russian theme. Tsereteli denies this story. A separate, equally colossal statue of Columbus, known as Birth of the New World, by the same designer was constructed in Puerto Rico in 2016, after being rejected by various US cities. The statue was unveiled in the city of Arecibo on 14 June 2016. A somewhat smaller but similar sculpture by Tsereteli, Birth of a New Man, was deposited in Seville.
The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: Большо́й теа́тр, tr. Bol'shoy teatr, literally "Big Theater", IPA: [bɐlʲˈʂoj tʲɪˈatər]) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances. Before the October Revolution it was a part of the Imperial Theatres of the Russian Empire along with Maly Theatre (Small Theatre) in Moscow and a few theatres in Saint Petersburg (Hermitage Theatre, Bolshoi (Kamenny) Theatre, later Mariinsky Theatre and others). The Bolshoi Ballet and Bolshoi Opera are amongst the oldest and most renowned ballet and opera companies in the world. It is by far the world's biggest ballet company, with more than 200 dancers. The theatre is the parent company of The Bolshoi Ballet Academy, a world-famous leading school of ballet. It has a branch at the Bolshoi Theater School in Joinville, Brazil. The main building of the theatre, rebuilt and renovated several times during its history, is a landmark of Moscow and Russia (its iconic neoclassical façade is depicted on the Russian 100-ruble banknote). On 28 October 2011, the Bolshoi re-opened after an extensive six-year renovation. The official cost of the renovation is 21 billion rubles ($688 million). However, other Russian authorities and other people connected to it claimed much more public money was spent. The renovation included restoring acoustics to the original quality (which had been lost during the Soviet Era), as well as restoring the original Imperial decor of the Bolshoi.
State historical museum
The State Historical Museum (Russian: Государственный исторический музей, Gosudarstvenny istoricheskiy muzyey) of Russia is a museum of Russian history located between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. The museum's exhibitions range from relics of prehistoric tribes that lived in the territory of present-day Russia, to priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers in the millions.The place where the museum now stands was formerly occupied by the Principal Medicine Store, built by order of Peter the Great in the Moscow baroque style. Several rooms in that building housed royal collections of antiquities. Other rooms were occupied by the Moscow University, founded by Mikhail Lomonosov in 1755. The museum was founded in 1872 by Ivan Zabelin, Aleksey Uvarov and several other Slavophiles interested in promoting Russian history and national self-awareness. The board of trustees, composed of Sergey Solovyov, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Uvarov, and other leading historians, presided over the construction of the museum building. After a prolonged competition, the project was handed over to Vladimir Osipovich Shervud (or Sherwood, 1833–97). The present structure was built based on Sherwood's neo-Russian design between 1875 and 1881. The first 11 exhibit halls officially opened in 1883 during a visit from the Tsar and his wife. Then in 1894 Tsar Alexander III became the honorary president of the museum and the following year, 1895, the museum was renamed the Tsar Alexander III Imperial Russian History Museum. Its interiors were intricately decorated in the Russian Revival style by such artists as Viktor Vasnetsov, Henrik Semiradsky, and Ivan Aivazovsky. During the Soviet period, the murals were proclaimed gaudy and were plastered over. The museum went through a painstaking restoration of its original appearance between 1986 and 1997. Notable items include a longboat excavated from the banks of the Volga River, gold artifacts of the Scythians, birch-bark scrolls of Novgorod, manuscripts going back to the sixth century, Russian folk ceramics, and wooden objects. The library boasts the manuscripts of the Chludov Psalter (860s), Svyatoslav's Miscellanies (1073), Mstislav Gospel (1117), Yuriev Gospel (1119), and Halych Gospel (1144). The museum's coin collection alone includes 1.7 million coins, making it the largest in Russia. In 1996, the number of all articles in the museum's collection reached 4,373,757. A branch of the museum is housed in the Romanov Chambers Zaryadye and Moscow Kremlin. In 1934 The Museum of Women's Emancipation at the Novodevichy Convent became part of the State Historical Museum. Some of the churches and other monastic buildings are still affiliated with the State Historical Museum.
Lenin's Mausoleum (from 1953 to 1961 Lenin's & Stalin's Mausoleum) (Russian: Мавзолей Ленина, tr. Mavzoley Lenina, IPA: [məvzɐˈlʲej ˈlʲenʲɪnə]), also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated on Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. His preserved body has been on public display there since shortly after his death in 1924, with rare exceptions in wartime. Alexey Shchusev's diminutive but monumental granite structure incorporates some elements from ancient mausoleums, such as the Step Pyramid, the Tomb of Cyrus the Great and, to some degree, the Temple of the Inscriptions.Lenin died on 21 January 1924. Two days later, architect Alexey Shchusev was tasked with building a structure suitable for viewing of the body by mourners. A wooden tomb, in Red Square by the Moscow Kremlin Wall, was ready on January 27, and later that day Lenin's coffin was placed in it. More than 100,000 people visited the tomb in the next six weeks. By August 1924, Shchusev had replaced the tomb with a larger one, and Lenin's body was transferred to a sarcophagus designed by architect Konstantin Melnikov. Pathologist Alexei Ivanovich Abrikosov had embalmed Lenin's body shortly after his death and Boris Zbarsky and Vladimir Vorobiev were tasked with the ongoing preservation of the body. After graduating from Moscow University, Ilya Zbarsky became his father's assistant, and likened the work on Lenin's body to that of ancient Egyptian priests. In 1925, Boris Zbarsky and Vorobiev urged the government to replace the wooden structure after mold was found in the walls and even on the body itself. A new mausoleum of marble, porphyry, granite, and labradorite (by Alexey Shchusev, I.A. Frantsuz and G.K. Yakovlev) was completed in 1930. The mausoleum also served as a viewing stand for Soviet leaders to review parades on Red Square. In 1973, sculptor Nikolai Tomsky designed a new sarcophagus. On 26 January 1924, the Head of the Moscow Garrison issued an order to place the guard of honour at the mausoleum. Russians call it the "Number One Sentry". After the events of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, the guard of honour was disbanded. In 1997, the "Number One Sentry" was restored at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Alexander Garden. Lenin's body was removed in October 1941 and evacuated to Tyumen, in Siberia, when it appeared that Moscow might be in danger of capture by German troops. After the war, it was returned and the tomb reopened. More than 10 million people visited Lenin's tomb between 1924 and 1972. Joseph Stalin's embalmed body shared a spot next to Lenin's, from the time of his death in March 1953 until October 1961, when Stalin was removed as part of de-Stalinization and Khrushchev's Thaw, and buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis outside the walls of the Kremlin. Lenin's body was to have been transferred to the Pantheon upon its completion but the project was cancelled in the aftermath of de-Stalinization.
New Tretyakov Gallery
The New Tretyakov, a branch of the State Tretyakov Gallery, is the premier venue for 20th-century Russian art in Moscow.. Presenting a wide range of works from both the 20th and 21st centuries, the collection includes works from the Avant-garde, Socialist Realism and Austere periods. The institution holds both large-scale retrospectives of renowned Russian artists and temporary exhibitions to showcase young contemporary artists.
Russian Army Theatre
The Central Academic Theatre of the Russian Army (Russian: Центральный академический театр Российской армии) is the largest theatre in Moscow. It was established in 1929 as the Red Army Theatre, was renamed the Soviet Army Theatre in 1951 and has always specialized in war-themed productions. The huge building, dominating the Suvorov Square and scored to resemble a red Soviet star, was constructed between 1934 and 1940. This prime example of the Stalinist architecture was designed by Karo Halabyan and V. Simbirtsev. The theatre has been supposed to have the largest stage in all of Europe. It was large enough to host real tanks, cavalry and big models of ships. The auditorium has 1,900 seats. The theatre's first and best known director, Aleksey Popov, staged some of the most monumental theatre productions in the Soviet Union. He was succeeded in 1963 by his son, Andrei Popov. The theatre's brightest stars included Lyudmila Kasatkina, Vladimir Zeldin, Nina Sazonova, Lyudmila Chursina, Larisa Golubkina, Nikolai Pastukhov, Boris Plotnikov, Fyodor Chekhankov, and Lyubov Dobrzhanskaya.
Muzey Sovremennoy Istorii Rossii
The Museum of Contemporary Russian History has an extensive collection (of over 2 million exhibits) that documents the country's political development over the last 150 years. All sorts of unique items including photos, posters, books, and documents look at and analyse the most important events in recent history - the museum even has the actual stones thrown at policemen by workers in the 1905 Revolution. There are also detailed and informative accounts of events since the fall of Communism
Tverskaya Street (Russian: Тверская улица, IPA: [tvʲɪrˈskajə ˈulʲɪt͡sə]), known between 1935 and 1990 as Gorky Street (Russian: улица Горького), is the main radial street in Moscow. The street runs Northwest from the central Manege Square in the direction of Saint Petersburg and terminates at the Garden Ring, giving the name to Tverskoy District. The route continues further as First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, Leningradsky Avenue and Leningradskoye Highway.ourists are told that Tverskaya Street existed as early as the 12th century. Its importance for the medieval city was immense, as it connected Moscow with its superior, and later chief rival, Tver. At that time, the thoroughfare crossed the Neglinnaya River. The first stone bridge across the Neglinnaya was set up in 1595. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Tverskaya Street was renowned as the centre of Moscow's social life. The nobility considered it fashionable to settle in this district. Among the Palladian mansions dating from the reign of Catherine the Great are the residence of the mayor of Moscow (1778–82, rebuilt in ), and the English Club (1780s). The mayor's residence among a number of other historic buildings was moved about 14 meters for the widening of the Gorky Street during Stalin's time. On the square before it stands a statue of the legendary founder of Moscow, Yuri Dolgoruky, erected for the city's 800th anniversary. During the imperial period, the importance of the thoroughfare was highlighted by the fact that it was through this street that the tsars arrived from the Northern capital to stay at their Kremlin residence. Several triumphal arches were constructed to commemorate coronation ceremonies. In 1792, the Tverskaya Square was laid out before the residence of the governor of Moscow as a staging ground for mass processions and parades. In 1947, the square was decorated with an equestrian statue of Prince Yury Dolgoruky, founder of Moscow.
Novo Pushkinskaya square
Novopushkinskiy Park is located along Tverskoi Blvd and Bolshaya Bronnaya Street across from Pushkin Square. Here you will find a nice bit of green space with a well manicured and landscaped area with flower beds and fountain. There is a nice wooded area which are full of green foliage at this time of year and park benches a plenty. In the end, probably not a target place to visit for tourists in Moscow, but Novopushkinskiy Park is a fair place for a rest if you plan to be in this area of the city and need a quiet place to grab a quick place to sit and rest your feet. Note: The historic Cafe Pushkin as well as the historic McDonalds, the first to open in Moscow back in 1990 are located at Novopushkinskiy Park.
Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure (Russian: Центральный парк культуры и отдыха (ЦПКиО) имени Горького, tr. Tsentralny park kultury i otdykha imeni Gorkogo, IPA: [tsɨnˈtralʲnɨj ˈpark kʊlʲˈturɨ i ˈodːɨxə ˈimʲɪnʲɪ ˈɡorʲkəvɐ]) is a central park in Moscow, named after Maxim Gorky. In August 2018, the Park's 90th anniversary was celebrated.Gorky Park, located at Krymsky Val and situated just across the Moskva River from Park Kultury Metro station, opened in 1928. The park followed the plan of Konstantin Melnikov, a widely known Soviet avant-garde and constructivist architect, and amalgamated the extensive gardens of the old Golitsyn Hospital [ru] and of the Neskuchny Palace, covering an area of 300 acres (120 ha) along the river. The history of the Neskuchny Garden can be traced back to 1753, when it emerged in the area between Kaluzhskaya Zastava and Trubetskoy Moskva river-side estate. The neighboring area to Neskuchny Garden, from Krymsky Val to Neskuchny Garden, received little attention right up until the 1920s. Initially it was covered with park gardens, meadows and vegetable gardens belonging to the owners of neighboring estates. It formed a wasteland by the end of the 19th century, and served as a waste heap. The First All-Russian Agricultural and Handicraft Industries Exhibition opened in 1923 on a former rubbish dump in Moscow. The area had been cleared during the course of communist community work days. A resolution for the exhibition was passed[by whom?] on 19 October 1922 and the exhibition opened one and a half years later on 19 May 1923. After bidding for the exhibition's layout plan, which proposed four arrangements—Sokol, Khodynskoye Pole, Petrovsko-Razumovsky park and the river areas near Krymsky bridge—preference was given to the last option. On 15 March 1928 by a resolution of the Presidium of the Moscow Council, the Agricultural and Handicraft Industries Exhibition was enlarged and transformed into the Central Park of Culture and Leisure—the country’s first park of its kind, which was referred to as an outdoor "cultural enterprise". In 1932 the park was named after M. A. Gorky. The idea of a need for a central park of culture and leisure in Moscow arose in the late 1920s in relation to Moscow's reconstruction with notions of a socialist "city of the future". The park was named after the writer and political activist Maxim Gorky.
A quiet park with an estate near the Red Army Theatre. As opposed to other parks, this place is usually rather deserted and there are plenty of empty benches along the pathways. In the center there is a large pond where you can rent a boat; there is also a smaller one, good ony for duck-feeding. When you get hungry you can take a bite from a big cracknel, have an ice-cream or sit at the park's cafe. If you like active leisure, for you there is a football field, tennis courts and a small sportsground where people play badminton or just throw ball. Nearby there are a playground for kids, a dance pavillion and a roofed concert hall. The country estate appeared here, amidst adorable ponds, in the beginning of the 19th century. In 1807 it was transformed into the quarters of a women's institute, bearing the name of Catherine the Great.
Trying some traditional Russian food.
Red Square (Russian: Красная площадь, tr. Krasnaya ploshchad', IPA: [ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ]) is one of the oldest and largest squares in Moscow, the capital of Russia. Owing to its historical significance and the adjacent historical buildings, it is regarded as one of the most famous squares in Europe and the world. It is located in Moscow's historic centre, in the eastern walls of the Kremlin. It is the city landmark of Moscow, with iconic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral, Lenin's Mausoleum and the GUM. In addition, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.The Red Square has an almost rectangular shape and is 70 meters wide and 330 meters long. It extends lengthways from northwest to southeast along part of the wall of the Kremlin that forms its boundary on the southwest side. In the northeast, the square is bounded by the GUM department store building and the old district of Kitai-Gorod, in the northwest by the State Historical Museum and the Resurrection Gate and in the southeast by Saint Basil's Cathedral. Tverskaya Street begins to the northwest of the square behind the building of the State Historical Museum, and to the southeast is the so-called Basilius slope, which leads to the Moskva River, which goes down and over a bridge to the Zamoskvorechye District. Two streets branch off to the northeast from Red Square: Nikolskaya Street, which is named after the Nikolaus Tower of the Kremlin, which is directly opposite, and the Ilyinka (Ильинка), both of which have existed since the 14th century and were once important arteries of old Moscow. Today the square itself, with the exception of the access road leading through it to the Savior Gate of the Kremlin, is a pedestrian zone.
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Russian: Храм Христа́ Спаси́теля, tr. Khram Khristá Spasítelya, IPA: [xram xrʲɪˈsta spɐˈsʲitʲɪlʲə]) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred metres southwest of the Kremlin. With an overall height of 103 metres (338 ft), it is the third tallest Orthodox Christian church building in the world, after the People's Salvation Cathedral in Bucharest, Romania and Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The current church is the second to stand on this site. The original church, built during the 19th century, took more than 40 years to build, and was the scene of the 1882 world premiere of the 1812 Overture composed by Tchaikovsky. It was destroyed in 1931 on the order of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. The demolition was supposed to make way for a colossal Palace of the Soviets to house the country's legislature, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Construction started in 1937 but was halted in 1941 when Germany invaded the Soviet Union during World War II. Its steel frame was disassembled the following year, and the Palace was never built. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the current church was rebuilt on the site between 1995 and 2000.
Moscow Cathedral Mosque
The original structure was built in 1904 according to the design of the architect Nikolay Zhukov and has undergone some reconstructions since then. It was also sometimes called "Tatar Mosque" because its congregation consisted mainly of ethnic Tatars. Socially, the Moscow Congregational Mosque was often viewed as the central mosque in Russia. It was one of the four mosques in Moscow. The old mosque was demolished on 11 September 2011. The decision to demolish it was controversial. In June 2008, the mosque was recognized as an object of cultural heritage, however, in the end of 2008 it was removed from the list of historical and architectural monuments. Thus, at the time of demolition, it was not protected. There were plans to reconstruct the mosque, and the reconstruction project was designed by architect Ilyas Tazhiyev. One of the reasons for reconstruction was that the building deviated by several degrees from the direction to Mecca. The project included disassembling the mosque, collecting all the stones, and re-assembling it again with corrected orientation. In 2009, however, the Council of Muftis dismissed Tazhiyev, first claiming they will make another reconstruction project, and then demolishing the building claiming it was close to collapse. Tazhiyev stated after the demolition that the reconstruction was still possible, and the building was not close to collapse. The Moscow Cathedral Mosque became the first demolished religious building in Moscow since 1978.A new mosque has been built at the site of the former one. It was officially inaugurated on 23 September 2015. The new mosque has the capacity of ten thousand worshippers. Presidents Vladimir Putin of Russia, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey and Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestinian Territories together with local Muslim leaders participated in the inauguration ceremony of this mosque.
Saint Basil's Cathedral
The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (Russian: Собо́р Васи́лия Блаже́нного, tr. Sobór Vasíliya Blazhénnogo), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is an Orthodox church in Red Square of Moscow, and is one of the most popular cultural symbols of Russia. The building, now a museum, is officially known as the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat, or Pokrovsky Cathedral. It was built from 1555 to 1561 on orders from Ivan the Terrible and commemorates the capture of Kazan and Astrakhan. It was the city's tallest building until the completion of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in 1600. The original building, known as Trinity Church and later Trinity Cathedral, contained eight chapels arranged around a ninth, central chapel dedicated to the Intercession; a tenth chapel was erected in 1588 over the grave of the venerated local saint Vasily (Basil). In the 16th and 17th centuries, the church, perceived (as with all churches in Byzantine Christianity) as the earthly symbol of the Heavenly City, was popularly known as the "Jerusalem" and served as an allegory of the Jerusalem Temple in the annual Palm Sunday parade attended by the Patriarch of Moscow and the Tsar. The cathedral has nine domes (each one corresponding to a different church) and is shaped like the flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, a design that has no parallel in Russian architecture. Dmitry Shvidkovsky, in his book Russian Architecture and the West, states that "it is like no other Russian building. Nothing similar can be found in the entire millennium of Byzantine tradition from the fifth to the fifteenth century ... a strangeness that astonishes by its unexpectedness, complexity and dazzling interleaving of the manifold details of its design." The cathedral foreshadowed the climax of Russian national architecture in the 17th century. As part of the program of state atheism, the church was confiscated from the Russian Orthodox community as part of the Soviet Union's antireligious campaigns and has operated as a division of the State Historical Museum since 1928. It was completely secularized in 1929, and remains a federal property of the Russian Federation. The church has been part of the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, weekly Orthodox Christian services with prayer to St. Basil have been restored since 1997.
The Moskva (Russian: река Москва, Москва-река, Moskva-reka) is a river running through western Russia. It rises about 140 km (90 mi) west of Moscow and flows roughly east through the Smolensk and Moscow Oblasts, passing through central Moscow. About 110 km (70 mi) southeast of Moscow, at the city of Kolomna, it flows into the Oka, itself a tributary of the Volga, which ultimately flows into the Caspian Sea.In addition to Finnic tribes, the Moskva River is also the origin of Slavic tribes such as the Vyatichi tribe.Moskva and Moscow are two different renderings of the same Russian word Москва. The city is named after the river. Finnic Merya and Muroma people, who originally inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, in English: Black river. It has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term, although several theories exist. To distinguish the river and the city, Russians usually call the river Moskva-reka instead of just Moskva.The river is 473 km (294 mi) long (or 502 km (312 mi)), and the area of its drainage basin is 17,600 km2 (6,800 sq mi). It has a vertical drop of 155 m (509 ft) (long-term average). The maximum depth is 3 metres (9.8 ft) above Moscow city limits, and up to 6 metres (20 ft) below it. Normally, it freezes in November–December and begins to thaw around late March. In Moscow, the river freezes occasionally;[contradictory] during an unusually warm winter in 2006–2007, ice began melting on January 25. The absolute water level in downtown Moscow is 120 metres (390 ft) above sea level (long-term average of summer lows after World War II); a historical maximum of 127.25 metres (417.5 ft) above sea level was set by the 1908 flood.
Komsomolskaya metro station
You have to go in to the metro station and pay ticket (2$) to see the beautiful art. After that you come out on the other side of the street. Komsomolskaya (Russian: Комсомо́льская) is a Moscow Metro station in the Krasnoselsky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is on the Koltsevaya line, between Prospekt Mira and Kurskaya stations. The station is located under the busiest Moscow transport hub, Komsomolskaya Square, which serves Leningradsky, Yaroslavsky, and Kazansky railway terminals. Because of that, the station is one of the busiest in the whole system. It opened on 30 January 1952 as a part of the second stage of the line.Stations on the first southern segment of the Koltsevaya line were dedicated to the victory over Nazi Germany, while those on the northern segment (Belorusskaya-Koltsevaya to Komsomolskaya) were dedicated to the theme of post-war labour. Komsomolskaya was designed by Alexey Shchusev as an illustration of a historical speech given by Joseph Stalin November 7, 1941. In the speech, Stalin evoked the memories of Alexander Nevsky, Dmitry Donskoy and other military leaders of the past, and all these historical figures eventually appeared on the mosaics of Komsomolskaya. The early roots of the station's design can be traced to a 1944 draft by Shchusev implemented in pure Petrine baroque, a local adaptation of the 17th century Dutch Golden Age. However, after the end of World War II the drafts of 1944 were discarded and the stations of the Koltsevaya line were completed in the mainstream late Stalinist style of the period. Shchusev, who died in 1949, retained his baroque nonce order.[clarification needed] Komsomolskaya remained Shchusev's first and only metro station design. The station was initially planned as a traditional deep pylon type. Later, Shchusev replaced the heavy concrete pylons with narrow octagonal steel columns, riveted with marble tiles, creating the larger open space. After Shchusev's death, the station was completed by Viktor Kokorin, A. Zabolotnaya, V. Varvarin and O. Velikoretsky and Pavel Korin, the creator of the mosaics.Beginning with the large vestibule located among the former of the two train stations, the building features a large octagonal dome topped by a cupola, and a spire crowned by a large star and imposing full-height portico with stylised Corinthian columns. Inside amid the Baroque-style ornaments, rich torchères and chandelier lights, two escalators descend, one leading to the old 1935 Komsomolskaya-Radialnaya station, and the second to this one. On the platform level, there is a Baroque ceiling, with accompanying friezes, painted yellow. Supporting the enlarged barrel vault are 68 octagonal columns faced with white marble, and topped with baroque pilasters. The platform is lit up by chandeliers and additional concealed elements in the niches of both the central and platform halls.
Kazansky railway station
Kazansky railway terminal (Russian: Каза́нский вокза́л, Kazansky vokzal) also known as Moscow Kazansky railway station (Russian: Москва́-Каза́нская, Moskva-Kazanskaya) is one of nine railway terminals in Moscow, situated on the Komsomolskaya Square, across the square from the Leningradsky and Yaroslavsky stations. Kazansky station primarily serves two major railway lines radiating from Moscow: the eastbound one, to Kazan, Yekaterinburg, and points beyond (one of the routes of the Trans-Siberian Railway), and the south-east-bound one, to Ryazan. After Ryazan, the south-eastern line branches a number of times, so that trains originating from Kazansky station serve most of south-eastern Russia, Kazakhstan, and the post-Soviet Central Asian states (mostly via the Trans-Aral line). Commuter trains serving these two directions use Kazansky station as well. Occasionally, long-distance trains serving the eastbound Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod line use Kazansky station as well. However, the commuter trains of that line never do so, as they always arrive to Moscow's Kursky Rail Terminal. The forerunner of today's Kazan railway station was built in 1862 with the opening of the railway line from Moscow to Ryazan. Construction of the modern building according to the design by architect Alexey Shchusev started in 1913 and ended in 1940. The building resembles the Söyembikä Tower in Kazan.
Belorusskii train station
Belorussky railway terminal (Russian: Белору́сский вокза́л, IPA: [bʲɪɫɐˈruskʲɪj vɐɡˈzaɫ]) is a passenger terminal at the Moscow–Passenger–Smolenskaya railway station (Russian: Москва́-Пассажирская-Смоле́нская, also known as Moskva-Smolenskaya) of the Moscow Railway. Informally the whole station can be called as Moscow Belorusskaya (Russian: Москва Белорусская, Moskva Belorusskaya). It is one of nine railway terminals of Moscow. It was opened in 1870 and rebuilt in its current form in 1907–1912.Belorussky railway terminal serves long distance trains to regions west and south-west of Moscow, and one train each to the north-east (on the Savyolovsky branch to Rybinsk with continuing service to Uglich, Vesegonsk, and Pestovo) and to the south (to Anapa through Tula, Kursk, Voronezh, and Rostov-on-Don). The station also serves local commuter trains (Belorussky suburban railway line and Line D1 of Moscow Central Diameters) to Usovo, Odintsovo, Golitsyno, Kubinka I [ru], Mozhaisk (including express service), Borodino, and Zvenigorod as well as the Aeroexpress service to Sheremetyevo Airport. The station is not entirely a terminus station. A transit line continues on the Alekseevskaya Line [ru]. In addition, the station provides through service to Savyolovsky (Savyolovsky suburban railway line and Line D1 of Moscow Central Diameters) and Kursky stations. Until 18 May 2015 a suburban train service also continued to Gagarin, and until the end of 2012 to Vyazma. Now the farthest station of commuter train service on this line is Mozhaisk. Approximately 1500 passengers per hour use Belorussky station. Belorussky railway station is included in the Moscow Regional Directorate of the Directorate of railway stations. This station is part of the Moscow-Smolensk unit of DTSS-3, Moscow Directorate of Rail Traffic Control.Construction of the railway from Moscow to Smolensk, and then to Minsk and Warsaw, started in the second half of the 1860s. Construction of the station, known as Smolensky, began in late April 1869. A grand opening of the Moscow-Smolensk railway took place on 19 September 1870, the station became the sixth in Moscow. In November 1871 after the extension of the railway to Belarus, the station was renamed Belorussky Station. On 15 May 1910 the right wing of the new station opened, and on 26 February 1912 the left wing opened. The station was designed by architect Ivan Strukov [ru]. On 4 May 1912 the railway was renamed the Alexander Railway, the station was renamed Alexander Station. In August 1922 the Alexander and the Moscow-Baltic railways were merged into the Moscow-Belarus-Baltic, so the station was renamed Belorussian-Baltic station. In May 1936 and, after yet another reorganization of the railways, the station received its present name – Belorussky Station.
The state DUMA
he State Duma (Russian: Госуда́рственная ду́ма, tr. Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma (Russian: Госду́ма), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian people in a referendum. In the 2007 and 2011 Russian legislative elections a full party-list proportional representation with 7% electoral threshold system was used, but this was subsequently repealed. The legislature's term length was initially 2 years in the 1993–1995 elections period, and 4 years in 1999–2007 elections period; since the 2011 elections the term length is 5 years. The history of the Duma dates back to the Boyar dumas of Kievan Rus' and Muscovite Russia as well to Tsarist Russia. The State Duma was founded in 1905 after the violence and upheaval in the Russian Revolution of 1905 and was Russia's first elected parliament. The first two attempts by Tsar Nicholas II (1868-1918) to make it active were ineffective. Subsequently, each of these Dumas was dissolved after only a few months. The third Duma was the only one to last until the end of its five-year term. After the 1907 electoral reform, the third Duma, elected in November 1907, was largely made up of members of the upper classes, as radical influences in the Duma had almost entirely been removed. The establishment of the Duma after the 1905 Revolution was to herald significant changes to the previous Russian Imperial autocratic system. Furthermore, the Duma was later to have an important effect on Russian history, as it was one of the contributing factors in the February Revolution of 1917, the first of two that year, which led to the abolition of autocracy in Russia and the overthrow of the Tsar.
Kotelnicheskaya Embankment Building
Kotelnicheskaya Embankment Building is one of seven Stalinist skyscrapers laid down in September 1947 and completed in 1952, designed by Dmitry Chechulin (then Chief Architect of Moscow) and Andrei Rostkovsky. The main tower has 32 levels (including mechanical floors) and is 176 metres (577 ft) tall. At the time of construction it was the tallest building in Europe. The building also incorporates a 9-story apartment block facing Moskva River, designed by the same architects in 1938 and completed in 1940. Initially built in stern early Stalinist style, with wet stucco wall finishes, it was re-finished in terracotta panels in line with the central tower and acquired ornate pseudo-Gothic crowns over its 12-story raised corners and center tower. By the end of World War II, the side wing was converted to multi-family kommunalka housing, in contrast to the planned elite status of the central tower. The central tower, of a conventional steel frame structural type, has a hexagonal cross-section with three side wings (18 stories, including two mechanical floors). While it is not exceptionally tall or massive, the "upward surge" of five stepped-up layers, from a flat 9-story side wing to the spire, gives the impression of a more massive structure. The structure hides behind itself a so-called "Shvivaya Gorka," a hill with historical architecture and a maze of steeply inclined streets. Chechulin was initially criticized for complete disregard of this area, but his bureaucratic influence brushed off any criticisms.
Margarita Rudomino All-Russia State Library for Foreign Literature
The library was started by Margarita Ivanovna Rudomino in 1921 in an old building in central Moscow. It started with a collection of 100 books in German, French and English. State library for foreign literature has existed since 1924; before — Neophilologica library, library Neuphilologische Institute. The library moved four times and did not have its current home until 1967. The library was still under the control of its founder and it grew to contain four million books. Most of the books are from Western countries and the library contains languages facilities so that readers can learn the language of the books. The books are catalogued according to the system used in the culture that the books come from. The libraries founder studied library science in Denmark. She retired in 1973 when the library had four million publications in 128 languages. Since 1975, the profile of the library includes fiction, foreign literature on the Humanities, arts, foreign countries and reference publications. The main library building is located in Moscow at the Yauza Bank, opposite the high-rise building on Kotelnicheskaya embankment. Unlike other Central Moscow scientific libraries, the library is arranged for readers from sixteen years old. For younger readers (from 5 to 16 years), there is a children's room. Nicknamed "the Foreigner", the library has an extensive stock of humanities literature. Compared to Moscow's other main libraries, such as the Russian State Library and the State Public Historical Library of Russia, the library offers relative quick access to books from its depository, just 15–20 minutes. It is said that it is one of the world's most important libraries.